Magic in the Encyclopedia of Diderot and d’Alembert

MAGIC , or occult art science learning to do things which appear above human power .

Magic , considered the first science mages , was anything other than the study of wisdom : for when she prenoit in good part, but it is rare that man contains within the bounds of truth, it is too simple for him. It is almost a small number of educated people in a century & a country plagued by crass ignorance, well- soon succumb to the temptation to go to extraordinary & superhuman : and mages Chaldea & all the East , or rather their followers (because it is these that depravity ideas usually come ) , mages , I say, is tied to astrology, the divination , the enchantments , Hexes , & soon became odious term magic , and no longer served afterwards to designate also illusory science & contemptible girl ignorance and pride, this science has been older , it would be difficult to determine the times of origin, whose purpose is to alleviate the sufferings of humanity , she arose with our miseries . As a dark science, she is on her throne in countries where barbarism & rudeness reign. Lapps , and generally savages cultivate magic , and make a big deal .
To make a complete treatise on magic, considered in the broadest sense , that is to say, in all it can be good & bad , we ought to distinguish the divine magic, natural magic & supernatural magic .
1 ° . Divine magic is nothing other than this particular acquaintance plans , views of the sovereign wisdom , that God in His revealed to the saints men animated spirit grace, supernatural power that it gives them to predict the future, to perform miracles , and to read, so to speak, in the heart of those to whom they have to do. It was such donations, we must believe , even if philosophy does in fact no just idea, enlightened by faith , she revere in silence. But is it still ? I sai , and I CROI it is doubtful . It does not depend on us to acquire this desirable magic , it comes neither current nor of wanting , it is a gift from God.
2 ° . By natural magic, is the study a bit depth of the wild, wonderful secrets they discovered , and the invaluable benefits that this study has brought to humanity in almost all arts & all the sciences , Physics, Astronomy, Medicine, Agriculture , Marine, Mechanical , I would even say Eloquence , for it is the knowledge of nature & the human mind in particular that springs & stir , the great masters are liable for printing they do on their listeners , passions they excite in them, they sell their tears , & c . & c . & c .
This very commendable magic itself was pushed far enough in antiquity : it seems even by Greek fire , and some other discoveries which the authors tell us , that in many respects the former have surpassed us in this species magic , but the invasions of northern peoples made ​​him feel the most disastrous revolutions , and the dived in that awful chaos which science & fine arts had had so much trouble out in our Europe.
So many centuries after Archimedes sphere glass , dove flying Architras wood , gold birds Emperor Leo who sung , birds brazen Boethius who sung & voloient that the snakes of the same matter which siffloient , & c . it was a country in Europe ( but it was neither the country nor the century Vaucanson ) he was , I say, a country in which one was about to burn Brioche & puppets . A rider who françois promenoit & faisoit see at fairs a mare he had had the ability to draw exactly meet its signs , as we have seen in both subsequently had pain in Spain to see put to inquisition faisoit an animal all its resources , and had some difficulty to pull himself business . We might multiply countless examples of all natural things , that ignorance intended to criminalize & pass for acts of black magic & evil : why were not exposed those who first dared speak Antipodes & d a new world ?
But gradually we take the above , and we can say the same as the eyes of many , the terminals of the alleged natural magic shrink every day because the torch of enlightened philosophy , we do every day fortunate discoveries in the secrets of nature, and that good systems supported by a multitude of beautiful experiences announce to humanity WHEREOF she may be able by itself & without magic . And compass, the thélescopes , microscopes , & c . & Today , polyps , electricity , in Chemistry, in the Mechanical & Static , discoveries the finest & most useful , will immortalize our century ; & if Europe ever retomboit into barbarism which it is finally out , we will in barbarous successors for many magicians.
3 ° . Supernatural magic is the magic itself, this black magic that always takes it amiss , that produce pride, ignorance and lack of Philosophy : it is under Agrippa includes names cœlestialis & ceremonialis and it has the name of science , and is nothing other than the confused mass of obscure principles , uncertain & unproven practices arbitrary most childish , and which proves ineffective by the nature of things.
Agrippa as a philosopher magician , magic means he calls cœlestialis , judicial astrology that assigns a certain spirits dominate the planets , and the planets on the men, and that claims to the various constellations influence on inclinations, fate, good or bad fortune of humans; & these weak foundations built a ridiculous system , but not dare to appear today in the almanac of Liege & other similar books ; sad deposits of materials used to feed prejudices & popular errors .
Magic ceremonialis , following Agrippa, is unquestionably there was more odious in the vain sciences : it consists in the invocation of demons , and then assumes an express or tacit agreement made ​​with the powers hell , the alleged power to harm their enemies , produce bad effects & pernicious than sauroient avoid the unfortunate victims of their fury.
It is divided into several branches, following the various objects & operations; cabal , the sorcery , enchantment , evocation of the dead or evil spirits and discover the hidden treasures of the greatest secrets of divination, the gift prophecy, that of healing by mysterious practices the most obstinate diseases attendance Sabbath , & c . What is not able through the human mind ! Was given in all these dreams , it is the last effort of philosophy to finally disillusioned humanity of these chimeras humiliating , she had to fight superstition , and even theology which only too often common cause with it. But finally in the country where we can think , think & doubt , the devil is a small role , and the diabolical magic remains without respect & credit.
But do not shoot vanity of our thinking , we came there a little late, open the books of the smaller court of Justice , you will find huge notebooks proceedings against the sorcerers , wizards & sorcerers . The lords of jurisdictions have enriched their remains , and the confiscation of property , belonging to the alleged witches may be turned over a bonfire , the less – is it true that the passion has often benefit greatly from the credulity of the people , and make it look like a witch doctor magic & that she wanted to lose , even in the time that the following judicious remark Apuleius magic once accused, the crime , he said, is not even believed by those who accuse others , for if a man was persuaded that another man could kill him by magic, he appréhenderoit to irritate and accused of this heinous crime.
The famous Marshal d’Ancre , Galigaï his wife Leonora , are memorable examples of what can be the fatal accusation of a chimeric crime , fomented by a passion secrette & push the dangerous court intrigue . But there are few examples in this genre better recognized than the famous priest Urbain Grandier & canon of Loudun , burned alive as a magician in the year 1629. A philosopher or just a friend of humanity suffers with pain the idea of an unhappy sacrificed to the simplicity of one & the barbarism of others! See how coolly condemned as a magician to perish by fire , judged on the evidence of Astaroth devil of the order of seraphim of Easas , Celsus , of Acaos of CEDON , Asmodeus , devils the order of thrones, Alex , Zebulun, Nephtalim , Cham , Uriel , Ahaz , the order of principalities ? see how this unfortunate canon judged mercilessly on the testimony of some nuns disoient that he had delivered to the legions of evil spirits ? is not how it is uneasy , when viewed burned alive with magical characters called , continued & blackened as a magician on how long the stake even where a blackish fly order of things called drones , and who rodoit around the head of Grandier , was taken by a monk who probably had read in the council Quieres , the devils always trouvoient death men to try , was taken , tell I , for Béelzebut prince flies, which voloit around Grandier to take his soul to hell? Childish observation, but in the mouth of this monk was perhaps one of the least bad arguments that barbarous policy knew to use to justify its excesses , and by imposing absurd tales the fatal credulity simple . What horrors ! & That is not doing the human mind when blinded by the unhappy passions of envy & the spirit of vengeance ? One should probably consider Gabriel Naudé , taking generous defense of great men accused of magic , but I think they have more obligations to the taste of Philosophy who felt all the vanity of this accusation, that their zeal lawyer who may have scored more courage in his company that skill in execution & forces in reasoning he employs. If Naudé was able to justify many of the great men of attribution in the eyes of common sense & reason destroys itself : despite his zeal he would doubtless have failed if he had undertaken to exonerate completely in this respect the sages of antiquity , since all their philosophy could not put away this coarse superstition , magic that holds hands . I will cite another example Cato . It was the idea that we can heal the most serious diseases enchanted lyrics : Here barbarous words , by which according to him was a very assured recipe to restore the dismissed members: INCIPE cantare in alto S: F. motas Danata dardaries astotaries , dic una parity usque dum coeant , & c . This is the edition of Aldus Manutius I read , for that of Henri Estienne , Reviews & corrected by Victorius , was greatly changed to a point where the vast darkness of the text opens a wide field for mania reviews .
Everyone knows that the ancients had attached the greatest virtues magic word abracadabra . Q. Serenus , famous doctor , claims that this vacuity word meaning written on paper & hung around his neck, was a sure remedy to cure fever quarter , doubtless with such principles superstition was all his pharmacy , and the faith of the patient ‘s best resource.
It is this faith that we can & must be reported if these extraordinary healings in the story they seem to hold magic, but depth , are almost always pious fraud or the consequences of this superstition has too often triumphed over common sense , reason & even Philosophy. Our prejudices , our mistakes & our follies are all held by the hand. Fear is the daughter of ignorance , it produced the superstition which is in turn the mother of fanaticism, fruitful source of errors, illusions, phantoms , a échaufée imagination that changes goblins, in wolves garoux in ghosts , demons even all that collides , how in this state of mind not to believe all the dreams of magic? if the fanatic is pious devotee & ( & it is almost always the tone in which it is mounted ) they believe magician for the glory of God, the award – least he important privilege of saving & damn clear: there is no magic worse than hypocrites . I end this note , which is the sabbath which might be call the underground empire Amazons , the least – there has always been much more witches than wizards : we simply attribute the weakness of mind or too much curiosity women daughters of Eve , they want to lose like her to know everything. But an anonymous (See Alector or Coq, lib . II. Followers ) who would wish to persuade the public that it is one of the first confidants of satan, demons lends a spirit of gallantry which justifies their predilection for sex , and the favors which they honor : and there even just return this half of the human race with which one wins for the ordinary more than we lost.

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